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The same prompts can be used to elicit the learners’ response about pictures
2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. You can lead your learners to infer that the situations involve
- An anniversary (picture 2),
- The expression of gratitude (picture3),
- Greetings or leave-taking (picture 4),
- Compliments (picture 5),
- Season’s greetings (picture 6).
Therefore, the keys to the questions should be as follows:
Picture 2: Happy birthday.
Picture 3: Thank you very much.
Picture 4: Hi, Hello! Nice to meet you/ Nice to meet you too. (The interpretation
of Picture 4 is open-ended. So there are other possible answers than the ones
Picture 5: Thank you.
Picture 6: Happy new year to you, too.
Ask the learners to work in pairs to complete the dialogue. Direct them to
task three in the Say it Clear sub-rubric to check their answers, then let them
play out the dialogue.
A. Hello, Karima.
B. Hi, Zohra. How are you?
A. Not great/ Awful… I’ve got a headache.
B. Oh, what a pity! / Oh, I’m sorry to hear that.
Read and write 1 pp. 18/19
The aim of this rubric is to train the learners to scan texts for main ideas, to
justify their answers, to deduce the meaning of words from context as well as
practise language structures to be re-used in the writing sub-rubric for paragraph
development by contrast.
Task one :
Serves as a pre-reading activity the main purpose of which is to warm-up the
learners. Elicit from the learners what the gestures represented in pictures 1, 2, 3
and 4 mean in both their own culture and in the English culture. In interpreting
the gestures, learners will become aware that gestures are as important as
language itself for communication and that they are culture-specifi c.
Link up this activity to the next tasks at hand by directing the learners’
attention to the illustrations of the articles from The Daily Mail. Prompt them
with such questions as:
What do the pictures represent? (Palms)
Whose palms are they?
What do you think the article will be about?
When was it written?
Who wrote it? …
The answer keys are as follows:
Picture one: Goodbye/Bye or Hello/Hello.
Picture two: Goodbye/ See you.
Picture three: (That’s) bad.
Picture four, (That’s) right.
Task two :
Make sure your learners have understood the question before reading the
two texts of the article. Since the purpose of reading in this task is to skim texts
for global understanding, learners should normally read the text very quickly.
Answers a, b, and d are correct whereas answer d is not.
Task three :
In task three, learners read with a different purpose. They will scan the texts
to retrieve pieces of evidence supporting their understanding of the texts. They
will have read the text with scrutiny.
Task four :
Learners will read the text in order to infer meaning of words from context.
As an additional activity, you can make your learners look for antonyms and
synonyms in the two texts.
Reading in English is like reading in your own language. Sometimes, you
read for the general understanding of the text (skimming). At some other times,
you read texts to retrieve specifi c pieces of information that are relevant to
you (scanning). In both cases, you have to concentrate on key words without
worrying about understanding every word. You do not read in the same way
when we skim and scan a text.
This sub-rubric starts with a task that demands the classifi cation of adjectives
related to the description of personality features. It completes the vocabulary
work started in task four of the previous sub-rubric. This task is a problem-solving
activity. Problem solving activities take several forms in the textbook. Here, it
requires classifying adjectives into two categories, in the rest of the textbook, it
takes the form of matching, sequencing ideas, fi nding rules of grammar, ranking
functions and language forms from the most to the least formal etc…. Most of
the adjectives in task one are taken from the texts. So it will be easy for your
learners to classify them.
In task two, learners will use text three on page 19 as a model for writing
a paragraph (‘reading’ their partners’ palms). This is a pair work meant to be
conducted as a game. The partner whose palm is read should be encouraged to
make comments as indicated in red at the bottom of model text on page 19. This
comment allows learners to practise writing compound sentences expressing the
idea of contrast.
Write it out
The aim of this sub-rubric is to get the learners to write a confessional
note about themselves re-investing the functions and language forms
acquired earlier. It starts with task one, the purpose of which is to reinforce
the learners’ knowledge of compound sentences containing the conjunctions
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sentence generally expresses the main idea. Refer them to texts one and
two on page 19 again and ask them whether Daniel Radcliffe and Hilary are
perfect or not. Urge them to justify their answers by retrieving both positive and
negative evidence from the texts. Then let them do the exercise and justify their
answers. The answer key to the exercise is : Nobody is perfect. My partner
works hard, but he is messy. The second sentence develops the fi rst.
The second task assigns the learners to write a paragraph developing the
topic sentence : I am not perfect. Don’t just let your learners swim or sink in
this task. Brainstorm the topic with them and jot ideas on the board in the form
of a word chart . Writing involves a whole process. Concentrate on it as much as
you concentrate on the end product.
Here are some hints of which you can avail yourself in order to make the
task more interesting and more fruitful: a) Make the task more communicative
by making the learners write the paragraph within a context of a game called I
Must Confess or I Must Admit. The learners’ paragraph will take the form of
a confessional note read for the occasion. b) Ask the learners to tell you what
sort of person they think they are. Encourage them to tell you why they think
so. Write on the board both the adjectives and the defi nitions, explanations or
their illustrations of characteristics given as examples of their personality .
Tell them whether they think they are perfect and why they think so. Jot down
the ideas on board as explained above. Now demonstrate to your learners how
they can sequence their ideas into a coherent paragraph. Topic sentence ---
developing sentence one (illustration) ----explanation---developing sentence
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READ AND WRITE II p. 20
Read and Write II aims to develop the extensive reading skill through
culture-specifi c texts related to the functions and language forms studied in
the sequence. We hope that the texts are interesting enough for the learners to
read them alone or with their friends outside the classroom. The inclusion of this
sub-rubric stems from our belief that reading profi ciency develops gradually over
a long period of time through extensive reading. However, we have included a
series of exercises in order to make their reading purposeful, and so that you can
exploit them in the classroom. The aim of these exercises is to develop further
the skills and strategies involved in effective reading. Exercise 1 aims to develop
the strategy of inferring the meaning of words from context. Exercises 2 and 3
develop the reading for specifi c details , and exercise 4 involves the transposition
of information from text into a table, a type of problem solving activity. Read
and Write II closes with a task which aims to develop further the writing skill
using portrait models.
Warm-up to the exercises
Direct the learners’ attention to the pictures and elicit from them as much
information as you can. What does the middle upper picture show? What does
the man look like? What has he got in his mouth? What type of dog has he got?
(bulldog) Has he got any headwear? What is it? (a bowler hat) Look at the title
of the fi rst text and tell me what the name of the man is. Who is John Bull? If the
learners do not know who John Bull is, encourage them to read the text to fi nd
the information. Proceed in the same way with the other pictures.
I am not perfect. I like staying with my friends, but I am very moody.
I never smile. My friends don’t like it. So they often keep away from me.
I play soccer well, but I am not very sporty. I always like winning. This is
my confession to you. ..
Description John Bull Uncle Sam
Physical appearance He is fat with a red face. He has a white beard.
He has a brave, fi erce and
He wears a top hat, a waistcoat
and high boots.
He wears red, white and
blue clothes with stars
on his tall hat.
Once you have raised the interest of the learners about the texts, make sure they
have understood the questions well and let them answer them alone, in pairs or
groups. The keys to the exercises are as follows: Exercise 1: Stereotypes are
‘ xed’ ideas or prejudices. Make sure they understand what a stereotype is by
encouraging them to give particular examples of stereotypes . (e.g., Girls are not
good at Mathematics. Boys are good at Maths. Girls are good at literature…)
Exercise 2/Text 2: It is important to underline the fact that «singing» and
«talking» are negative in a country which celebrates the work ethic. Refer to
Jean de la Fontaine’s fable The Cicada and the Ant to illustrate the inference.
This can provide an opportunity for a joke in the classroom. Exercise 3: Text 4.
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SEQUENCE TWO: WHO’S CALLING PLEASE ?
Listen and speak p. 21
This rubric aims to develop the listening and speaking skills in connection
with the following functions and related language forms: requests, apologies,
asking for and giving permission.
This listening and speaking sub-rubric starts with a pre-listening phase,
the aim of which is to revise how to ask for information and make requests. It
comprises two tasks wherein the learners are given the opportunity to refurbish
their knowledge of how to say phone numbers.
Task one :
Tell your learners to imagine that they have just bought mobile phones or
that they have just installed home fi xed phones. In case they have neither phone
numbers, just tell them to invent one for the occasion. Encourage those learners
who write down the phone numbers on their agendas to check that they have
taken them down correctly. This is how to start the checking of understanding:
So, it’s … to which the other learner replies: That’s right/I see, or That’s not
quite right. It’s …
Task two :
This task involves a secretary being asked by her employer/director to
search for a phone number in a (phone) directory. Try to make the learners
imagine what the situation involves by asking them questions about the picture.
(e.g., What does it show? What is the man’s job? What’s the woman’s job?
Where do you think they are? What is the man holding in his hand? What
does the woman look? (she is angry). How do you know that she is angry?
(woman’s facial expression and attitude etc…).
The learners’ interpretations of the pictures can be various. Don’t impose
your own on them, monitor your interaction with your learners until they reach
an agreement. Then let them simulate the dialogue in pairs.
In English, the convention is that telephone numbers are written all in block.
However, when you say them, you say each fi gure separately (e.g., 897451
Say O as oh (Br. English) or zero (Am. English). When two numbers are
the same and are together, you can say double + the number or you can say the
fi gures separately (e.g., 005477 double-oh- ve-four-double-seven or oh-oh-
ve-four-seven-seven (Br. English).
Telephone numbers are pronounced in groups with a rising tone on the
fi rst groups and a falling tone on the last group. (see p. 23 of textbook for
The aim of this task is to develop the skill of taking notes on a message slip.
Taking notes is an important social and study skill. So you should encourage
your learners to develop it.
The aim of the task is to listen for specifi c information and take notes on a
message slip. Make sure your learners have understood well what to do. Direct
their attention to the message slip and try to elicit what it is used for. Once the
learners are well attuned, let them listen to you as you simulate on your own or
with the help of learners, the listening script on page 169. Learners take notes on
rough pieces of paper or their rough exercise books.
Try not to check your learners’ answers immediately after listening to the
telephone conversation. Interact with them and have them interpret the
context fi rst. (E.g., What is the situation about? How many interlocutors are
there? What are they talking about? What is the role of interlocutor A? What is
the role of interlocutor B? What are their attitudes towards each other ?). Come
back to their answers of task three gradually.
The key to the task is :
For: Jane Smith From: Mary Chapman
Message: Ringing back Time: At 2 p.m
Once the learners have checked their answers, encourage them to interact
by simulating the telephone conversation. You can simulate the conversation
yourself for the last time. Make sure the learners take notes as they interact.
Say it clear p. 22
The aim of this sub-rubric is double-fold: a) to focus on the weak and strong
forms of the modal auxiliary can, and on sound-spelling links of the letter
«a» with reference to English forenames; b) to practice intonation in asking
for permission and making requests within the communicative context of
Let the learners read the dialogues to get familiar with their contents. Prompt
them to interpret/identify the context i.e., the situation, the role of interlocutors,
their attitudes, the language functions… Once this is done, direct their attention
to the instructions and tell them to identify the modal can in the two dialogues,
and to copy down the sentences where the modal occurs.
With books closed, the learners will listen to you as you simulate the
dialogues and do the exercise as indicated in the instruction, i.e., they will use
one of the phonetic symbols given in the instruction next to the modal can in
each of the sentences sorted out.
Check the learners’ answers and try to interact with them. Let them observe,
analyse, and decide on the basis of their answers to task one how many forms
the modal can has and in which situation(s) each of its forms occurs.
The key to the task is as follows: The pronunciation of the letter «a» in can in
«Hello, can I speak to Pam, please?» is like that of «a» in the word Mexican».
This is the weak form of the auxiliary. In the second dialogue, you have both
the strong and weak forms of the auxiliary: the negative form can’t in «I’m
sorry I can’t talk now» and can in «Of course you can» are strong forms of
the auxiliary. The letter «a» in both cases is pronounced as the letter «a» in the
word «cat». As regards the letter «a» of «can» in the question «Can I call back,
please?, it is pronounced as the «a» in the word «Mexican».
There are about 35 grammar words (prepositions, auxiliaries …) in English
which have both weak and strong forms of pronunciation. The strong forms
occur in situations where these words are stressed (see the pronunciation of can
below). However, it is often the case that these gramma/function words, unlike
content words, are unstressed when we speak English fast. English spoken only
with strong forms sounds unnatural in English ears. So you will be well advised
to ‘teach’ your learners to use the weak forms of grammar words correctly. In
weak forms, the vowel sounds in the strong forms weaken/shorten into a schwa
(the most common vowel sound in English) or are simply elided/silenced. You
can avail yourself of the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current
English to get yourself acquainted with the pronunciation of both strong and
weak forms of English grammar words.
The convention for the use of strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs/
modals is as follows: The weak form is usually used when the auxiliary
verb/modal is at the beginning ( e.g. Do/Can/Have you…? ) of interrogative
sentences or in the middle of declarative sentences (e.g., I can’t go out now).
In these cases, the primary or modal auxiliaries are usually not stressed. Their
strong forms are used when they are used in short answers to yes-no questions
(e.g., Of course / Yes, you can. / No, you can’t). You also use the strong
forms when you want to stress something. (e.g., I’m sorry, I can’t talk now.)
You can avail yourself of the above tips to monitor the learners to understand the
rules for the use of strong and weak forms of can.
Note that the expression «of course» in dialogue two can stand alone as a
positive response for Ann’s asking for permission to call Janet back later. «You
can» just adds emphasis. The response can as well be «Yes, you can». Note also
that the intonation for the expression «of course» normally goes down and not up
as in dialogue two. If the tone is illustrated as going up in this case, it is because
Janet is surprised/astonished by Ann asking for permission to call her back.
With books open, have your learners listen to you as you read aloud the
dialogues. Encourage them to pay attention to intonation and stress by marking
the stress (the words and syllables which are stressed are in red, and those which
are not are in black) and intonation correctly as you simulate the dialogues.
Beat the stress on the table, and make gestures with hands to simulate the
falling-rising or rising-falling tone as indicated by the arrows. You can change
the intonation of «of course» in the dialogue as indicated above in the tips if you
want to sound neutral.
Read aloud the English forenames and have the learners practise them. Now
you can let the learners play out the dialogues, preferably with books closed.
Once the learners have understood what to do, encourage them to identify the
requests in the dialogues and write them on their exercise books. In the dialogues,
there are two main functions: asking for permission (dialogue one) and making
requests (dialogue two). Use the tips below to differentiate between making
requests and asking for permission. Then allow them enough time to do the fi rst
exercise, i.e., marking intonation in each of the requests. There are two requests
in dialogue two: «Could you tell her to call Patrick, please?» and «Could
you repeat your name?». In both cases the tone goes high on the last word
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Check the answers to the fi rst part of the task with the learners, and have
them read aloud the requests. In case they have confused between permission
and request, it does not matter. Just explain to them the difference using the tips
below. Simulate the dialogues before you ask the learners to act them out.
When we make requests and ask for permission, we can use the modal
auxiliary can/could. To distinguish between permission and requests, pay
attention to the personal pronouns used. We usually use the second-person
pronoun you (singular or plural), e.g., Could you repeat your name? to make
requests and the fi rst-person pronoun (singular or plural) to ask for permission.
(Can I speak to Pam, please?).
Word choice is very important when we make requests. For example, Could
you repeat your name? is more polite than Can you repeat your name, which
is also more polite than repeat your name please.
Likewise intonation is important in making polite requests. To sound polite,
mind, make your intonation go up at the end of questions with can and could.
If you make it fall (go down), your request becomes an order (an imperative
Here are some of the forms which requests can take: Will/Can/Would/could
you tell him to come? You can also use the expressions: I wonder if you could
tell him to come? or Would/Do you/ you mind telling him to come? Your voice
should go up at the end of each of the requests above to show politeness.
You can reply to requests and the demand of permission as follows:
a) Of course (intonation goes down on the stressed word «course». If
intonation in the expression (Note again: Of course in the fi rst task of the
Say it clear sub-rubric) goes up, it is because Ann is a little bit surprised at the
b) Certainly (Br. English) or Sure (Am. English). The intonation in both
replies goes down.
c) Ok .
Practise p. 23
The aim of this sub-rubric is to develop the speaking skill using the
function(s) of making and replying to requests and related language forms as
well as saying thank you and replying to thanks It also aims to make the learners
aware of degrees of formality and politeness.
Task one/Pair work
Before involving the learners in the task, make sure they have understood
what they have to do. Simulate sample dialogues to illustrate your point. For
the second situation, play out a dialogue with a learner to whom you will have
explained beforehand the purpose of the exercise. The learner says something in
a whispering manner. Make her/him believe that you have misheard her/him.
Here is a sample dialogue:
Learner: What’s your phone number?/
Teacher: Can/could you repeat that/say/explain that again, please?
Learner: Of course /Sure…. I said, What’s your phone number?
Teacher: I see. Thank you.
This exercise aims to encourage learners to ask for clarifi cations. Situations
of misunderstanding and mishearing are problem situations. Learners should
be encouraged to ask for clarifi cation to check understanding whenever it is
necessary in the classroom.
Task two/Pair work
In task two, learners practise further the notion of politeness by making a
telephone conversation more polite (conventional). Allow your learners to refl ect
on the exercise, then interact with them to elicit the equivalent polite forms of
the sentences and phrases using cues. These are some of the prompts you can
use. Get a student write on board the fi rst sentence I want to speak to John
Smith and write its polite equivalent I’d like to speak to John Smith, please
next to it. Tell them to do the same with the other sentences and expressions.
Learners will act out the dialogue in pairs once they have found out all the polite
equivalents of the cues. The key to the exercise is as follows:
A. I would like/I’d like to speak to Mr John Smith please?
B. I’m sorry. He is not here at the moment.
A. Can/could I leave a message, please?
B. Yes, go ahead.
A. Could you tell him to call Daniel on 0813209546.
B. Could you repeat your name please?
A. Yes, it is Daniel, that is D-A-N-I-E-L.
B. That’s fi ne.
A. Thank you.
B. You’re welcome.
Imagine p. 24
The aim of this section is to put the learners in problem-solving situations
involving misunderstanding and mishearing. Learners apply the functions of
apologising and asking for clarifi cation to solve the problems.
Task one/pair work
Make sure the learners have understood what to do. Direct their attention
to the different situations and have them interpret the context of each before
producing short dialogues following the instructions included for the task.
(E.g., Who are the interlocutors in the pictures? Where are they? What’s the
problem?… This being done, give them time to work out what to say in each of
the situations involved using the suggested cues. The keys to the exercises are
Shop assistant: That’s two Pounds fi fty (£ 2.50)
Customer: Sorry, how much (did you say)?/Pardon? I beg your pardon.
Situation 2 :
Customer: Can I have two stamps?
Post-offi ce clerk: Sorry, how many? Pardon/I beg your pardon.
Situation 3 :
Passer-by (A): Sorry, can you say/repeat that again/ can/could you speak
slowly? I don’t understand or Pardon/I beg your pardon.
Passer-by (B): Go straight on. Turn right. You can’t miss it.
Situation 4 :
Sorry, what did you say? Pardon/I beg your pardon.
Ask the learners to act out the dialogues in pairs making the necessary gestures.
(e.g., touching their ears to indicate mishearing or misunderstanding). Tell them
to write corrected samples of the dialogues on their copybooks.
The aim of this task is to make learners aware that when we apologise, it is
necessary to explain why we feel sorry. Hence, the saying : I’m sorry, I can explain.
Get learners to understand this and then encourage them to imagine appropriate
explanations for the other apologies in the exercise. Provide any help they may need.
Check the answers to the exercise, then have learners play out dialogues.
Example: A: I ‘m sorry. I’m late. The bus didn’t arrive on time.
B: Don’t worry/That’s all right.
Make learners familiar with the way we reply to apologies before they play out
Brainteasers p. 25
The aim of these brainteasers is to bring variety to class work. The learners are
asked in the fi rst brainteaser to guess what to expect in response to three different
e-mail messages. The key is as follows:
1. To the fi rst e-mail message, Mehdi has just passed his exams, we expect
the recipient to respond with «Congratulations».
2. To the second e-mail message, we expect the recipient to respond with
3. To the third e-mail message, we expect the recipient to respond with Happy
The key to the second brainteaser is:
1. Happy new year.
2. Happy birthday.
Read and write I pp. 26/27
The aim of this sub-rubric is to develop reading and writing skills
with reference to the following functions (inviting, expressing sympathy,
congratulating, thanking) .
This task is a warm-up to the other tasks. Interact with the learners and try
to elicit from them an interpretation of the context. (e.g., What do the pictures
represent? (Cartoon strip) How many people are there in each of the pictures?
What is buzzing on the ground in picture 3 from the left? What is the problem? Is
the cartoon strip funny? Is it satiric? Look at picture 4 . Do you agree with what
the man is doing?)
Make sure the learners have understood the question. Then let them do the
exercise on their copybooks. Encourage them to act out the dialogue.
Direct your learners’ attention to the shop window notice on page 27 and give
them time to answer the question by writing a full answer. (Key: I cannot/I can’t
go into the shop because it is closed for lunch). The learners can suggest other
The aim of this task is to differentiate between texts according to the messages
expressed in them. Make sure your learners have understood what to do. Elicit
from them what a thank-you note and a sympathy note mean. Give them time to
do the exercise . Get the learners to justify their answers when you check them.
For example, as a justifi cation to the answer that text 4 is an invitation, the
learners can single out the language form :
« Would you and Mary like to come to dinner on Saturday?» from the text.
The keys to the exercise are as follows:
Text two is a thank-you note;
Text three is a sympathy message;
Text four is an invitation.
This task aims to make learners aware that texts can be written in different
styles, each according to the author’s purpose or intent.
Direct the learners’ attention to the shop window notice. Then prompt them
with questions to illustrate the fact that the notice is written in a telegraphic
style. (e.g., Are there any full sentences in the text? Can you write the note in
full? What about texts two, three and four? Are they longer or shorter than text
one? Why are they longer? (written in full sentences)
This task focuses on the sequencing/order of ideas in a paragraph (a goodwill
note to share happiness ). Its aim is to develop process thinking by paying
attention to the sequencing of ideas in the message.
You can help your learners organise the ideas by interacting with them.
For example, you can ask them what the situation involves. (e.g., Who are
the correspondents? What could be their relationship? What is the occasion
of the writing of the goodwill note? Who could be Antonia? Once they have
interpreted the context correctly let them take time to do the exercise. Check
the answer to the exercise with the learners urging them to justify the sequencing
of the ideas in the text.
The key to the task is as follows:
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Task two is a follow-up to Task one. Direct learners’ attention to the birth
announcements. Interact with learners. (e.g., Where are the short texts taken
from? What do they represent? What is missing in the text: verbs, nouns or
adverbs? How can you rewrite them?). Once they have interpreted and
understood the context, let them move on to the task at hand. The learners will
copy a birth announcement and a re-written version (full sentences) on their
Write it out
The aim is to develop the social skill of writing goodwill letters/notes:
congratulations, condolences, thanking… This sub-rubric consists of two tasks.
Both tasks involve model or parallel writing. So encourage your learners to
refer to the models on page 27. Help your learners with the presentation of the
notes. Learners should write samples of their notes on their copybooks. Check
the form of the notes/letters using the tips below.
Here is a format that personal letters usually take in English.
1. The writer’s (i.e., the sender’s) address does not usually include the name,
which is shown by the signature (see number 5 in the letter layout above). It is
usually written in the top right-hand corner.
2. The date should fi gure just below the address. There is also an American way
of writing the date (e.g., March 14, 2005). This is the way you read/say the
(1) Sender’s address,
85 Oxford Street,
14 March, 2005 (2)
Dear George, (3)
I am pleased/happy/glad to learn that you have moved to a new flat.
… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . .
With best wishes (4)
In Br. English, you say March the fourteenth or the fourteenth of March. In
American English, you say March fourteenth.
3.Letters need salutations (Dear George , Hello…) Here are some other
salutations that you can use in both personal and business letters
1. Letters also need complimentary closes (e. g, Love, Best wishes). Here are
some other complementary closes.
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