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The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
Ministry of National Education
B. RICHE S. A. ARAB
SECONDARY EDUCATION: YEAR TWO
The National Authority for School Publications
General introduction …………………............................….............. ......………....... 03
Answer keys: Unit One............................................... ....................11
Answer keys: Unit Two .................................................. ............... 27
Answer keys: Unit Three .................................................. ............. 39
Answer keys: Unit Four .................................................. .............. 50
Answer keys: Unit Five .................................................. ............... 58
Answer keys: Unit Six............................................... ..................... 67
Answer keys: Unit Seven .................................................. ............ 77
Answer keys: Unit eight .................................................. .............. 85
Getting Through implements the National Curriculum for English issued by the Ministry of Education in December 2005. It follows the guiding principles which frame the curriculum, and which take account of the social and educational background of our learners, as well as the cultural values of Algeria.
A major aim of this book is to make both the teacher and the learner come to a fruitful interaction. This does mean that the appropriate attitude should be taken by the instructors to make learners a responsible party to the successful completion of their studies. The book is in effect the material representation of that philosophy. Teachers are strongly advised to read the curriculum outlined by the Ministry of Education to comprehend it, and to make sense of the different activities we have included in the student’s book. We should like this course to be a pleasant and engaging experience for both students and teachers.
Getting Through is devised in such a way that it becomes a handy and flexible pedagogic medium for use, and one which does not seek to inhibit teachers from creating activities other than those included here. We have, on the other hand, duly adhered to the guidelines and instructions of the Ministry of National Education regarding this stage of learning . We hope that teachers will find in it the resources, the inspiration and the support they need to conduct their classes effectively.
DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSEBOOK
This description is aimed at providing useful information to teachers on the textbook, and on how to use it. To this effect, we shall try to answer some of the questions that can naturally come to mind.
I-Why Getting Through and who is it for?
II-How is Getting Through organised?
III-What methodology is used?
VI-How to make the most of the book?
I-Why Getting Through and who is it for?
Getting Through is the title found to indicate the intermediate stage of English language learning. It marks the period when students are “getting through” the passageway leading to their final year of studies, to be completed with the baccalaureate examination. It is , therefore, a vital stage when knowledge and skills are reinforced, following the four-year course at the middle school and the first year at the secondary school. We have applied the same principles of the competency-based approach to be found in the first five textbooks, and we have made sure that the three competencies described in the National Curriculum are being developed at all stages of this book, through various tasks and activities. Let us recall the competencies that the learner is to develop.
ð* Interact orally in English
ð* Interpret oral and written messages
ð* Produce oral and written messages
Furthermore, the second year of the secondary school (SE2) is the stage when students are “specialising” in different streams (science, maths, technology, etc.). This is taken into consideration, through the fact that there are teaching units in the course more particularly addressed to ‘science and technology’ streams, or ‘language and literature’ streams.
II-How is Getting Through organised?
The coursebook is organised in eight didactic units. Each unit deals with a specific topic suggested by the curriculum designers. As said earlier, in each unit, the student will have many opportunities to develop the three competencies of interaction, interpretation and production, as we have devised a variety of tasks and activities leading gradually to the building of the project.
Each unit contains three main rubrics. But before approaching each, the learner will consider a Time to think section, which introduces the new vocabulary that will be used. It also aims to brainstorm students and get them to tell what they know about a specific topic. This is an important part of schemata activatum in which the learners contribute their own knowledge and connects it with that contained in the text.
Discovering Language is the first rubric. It aims at engaging learners to do various reading tasks, all revolving around the main expository text. It includes:
ð* a Grammar Desk that the students can consult for help with
the comprehension of the text,
ð* a Practice section which offers some activities designed to consolidate
the grammar, the vocabulary and the pronunciation learned previously.
These activities can be done in ones or in pairs,
ð* a Say it Aloud and Clear section in which the student develop their
ð* and a Working with Words section which focuses on vocabulary building. For this activity the students may be required to work with a monolingual dictionary (English- English), to develop their dictionary skills and enlarge their lexical fund.
The Developing Skills rubric includes two main sections:
ð* A Listening and Speaking section which deals with oral skills essentially. This includes a set of activities in which the students will listen to an input from the teacher, or an audio tape, and do various tasks (listen and take notes, listen and fill in gaps , listen and pick out the right answer to questions, and describe a process). These integrative tasks are devised to develop in the learners a number of abilities such as listening for details, for gist, paying attention to specific features in English pronunciation, paying attention to discourse markers/sequencers when listening to a lecture, a report etc.. These accuracy tasks and activities are usually performed individually, but students can also do them in pairs or in small groups. They can be also more interactive (for example, one student reads aloud a text and the other student takes notes or fills blanks in a text or draws a map);
ð* A Reading and Writing section which focuses on writing skills. Here too the students are required to predict - from looking at the pictures-what would be the answers to the questions asked about the text, and prior to their reading that text. Subsequently they will check whether their predictions were correct after reading the text. Just as for the first rubric, Discovering Language, the students
are encouraged to make guesses and anticipate on what knowledge they will receive.
ð* A Tip Box is also provided for the students: they can “open” it to learn about text construction (topic sentences, supporting sentences, etc) through a gap-filling activity;
ð* A Write it Out consolidation activity focussing on grammar at word, sentence and text levels , is also proposed to the students. It is meant to raise awareness on textual coherence. It is important to note, at this juncture, that the practice of grammar is given importance at all stages of the units. Indeed, most activities are meant to emphasise correctness and appropriacy in textual discourse (use of discourse markers /connectors), to fulfill various functions (for example, reading aloud a speech, a report, giving a lecture, etc).
PUTTING THINGS TOGETHER
The Putting All Together rubric deals with the final task , the project. It may or may not contain steps to follow, but it should feature in summary an understanding of the elements of language acquired during the study of the unit. It is a written product but should be presented orally to the rest of the class. It will then bring into relief all the resources developed by the learners, notably in terms of language, communication and methodology. Furthermore, it is prepared by many hands, and therefore will exhibit the advantages of doing collaborative work in terms of sharing know-how and information in a group. This is one way, we hope, of developing in learners the social skills likely to make behave in a courteous and responsible way in society ,i.e. to make good citizens.
WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE ?
The fourth rubric of the unit Where Do We Go From Here ? gives an opportunity to the students to practise self-assessment, and to decide on where they should intensify their learning efforts to try and eliminate their linguistic weaknesses.
EXPLORING MATTERS FURTHER
The last rubric Exploring Matters Further includes three to five medium-length texts depending on units. These will enable the students to broaden their
knowledge and skills in that they provide additional material related to each
unit ‘s topic. No tasks are foreseen concerning these texts, but the teachers could ask their learners to:
ð* summarise the text
ð* continue the story
ð* outline the text
ð* produce three or four comprehension questions about the text
ð* transfer information from the text to a non-verbal support (e.g. onto a chart, a graph, etc) if the text contains figures (statistics, percentages, etc).
III-What methodology is used?
Following the principles and objectives defined by the Algerian National Curriculum, and which rely on the competency-based approach, the methodology for the use of Getting Through in the classroom exhibits the following characteristics:
ð* Getting Through is communicative: the textbook lays the stress on the learners’ practice of English and encourages interaction. We have designed tasks and activities that are likely to meet the students’ interests and needs to prepare them for exchanges of information, opinions through a variety of texts showing spoken English or formal written English.
ð* Getting Through is task-based: the texbook includes a large number of tasks and activities that aim at developing both “lower-order” skills (acquiring new knowledge , understanding new facts and ideas and applying them to solve problems) and “higher order” skills (analysing information by breaking it into small parts to understand it better, synthesizing knowledge by combining it into new patterns and evaluating new information by forming an opinion and judging the quality of that new information).
The project is the final task, and is the most complex one cognitively. It requires the application of both types of cognitive skills described above; and the textbook offers plenty of opportunities to students to reach the objectives of the project.
ð* Getting Through encourages cooperative learning. Following the Vygotskyan principle of social constructive learning, the textbook offers tasks
and activities that encourage the learner to work with one or several partners (pair and small group-work) in order to construct new knowledge inside or outside the classroom. The project should be emphasized here. It is one of the undertakings that will promote learning skills and will help students to develop such social skills as designing an action plan, collecting information, sharing information … The project work can take the form of a few basic tasks which will grow into an accomplished and finalised product (for example, a biography, a poem, a scenario, a legal document, etc).
ð* Getting Through encourages learner reflection through individual works . Tasks and activities are designed to make students work individually so as to work out solutions by themselves before sharing them with a partner or with the group, and finally checking their findings with the teacher. The thinking stage of the ‘Think – Pair – Share’ procedure is an important phase of the learning process. Through it, the learner can form hypotheses and pay close attention to a specific aspect of language (grammar, vocabulary , pronunciation ) or skills (listening, speaking, reading or writing).
ð* Getting Through integrates grammar learning : each unit of Getting Through contains practice activities (for example Grammar Desk) which draws attention to grammatical terms and forms, and will increase the students’ awareness of the English grammatical system. This is intended to help them improve on spoken and written production.
ð* Getting Through aims at promoting self-assessment : this textbook includes activities which encourage students to monitor and check their own progress. Thus the rubric entitled Where Do We Go From Here? suggests self-monitoring activities which are mainly language checkpoints through I can do statements. In this rubric, the students are given the opportunity to assess how much and how well (very well’, ‘ fairly well’, a little’) they have performed in a specific area of language (or skill) and to decide which area deserves more attention and requires remedial work.
This rubric; therefore, helps the learner to be self-critical and also to stimulate self-improvement. Students doing a group activity can also use self-assessment grids; this will help them set standards for themselves by comparing their own self-assessment with that of their peers.
ð* Getting Through uses authentic material . It offers students a variety of authentic reading texts in order to let them get the feel of language as produced by native speakers. Some of the material , however, appears in translation from
other languages (for example the Fable by Jean de La Fontaine); or has been simplified in terms of vocabulary and syntactic structures. The idea was to keep the students motivated by saving them undue sophistication at this stage; On the other hand, some of the texts refer to the students’ own social and cultural realities, the Algerian ones.
IV. How to make the most of the book?
ð* Getting Through is based on the assumption that learning by developing one’s individual competences implies an interaction involving certain roles taken by the teacher and others taken by the learner.
ð* Whilst the learner is at the centre of our pedagogic framework, we assume that the teacher will be fully committed, and will provide the necessary guidance for the successful performance of the tasks and activities done by the learner. This is the pre-requisite for the final task at the end of each of the units; i.e. the project.
ð* Getting Through devotes much space to material relating both to “the world of the student” and to the outside world. We have brought into this book a variety of texts written by authors different places in the world in order to widen the student’s general knowledge and to increase their awareness of other cultures and ways of life.
ð* The teachers are prompted to use the textbook selectively. As said earlier, the students they teach have selected a stream of studies with major and minor subjects. Teachers will adjust their classes in accordance with the appropriate stream. There are actually units which are more particularly geared to the scientific streams, while others are more ‘literary’ or language-oriented. It is up to the teachers, therefore, to lay the emphasis on the areas of knowledge required by the class in the units they approach. In this line of thought, they can bring to the class additional material in terms of texts or audio tapes to follow up with the particular topics dealt with.
Teachers can also decide to change or ignore any material from the textbook that seems inappropriate to their classes, or unrelated to their students’ interests. For instance a teacher can add a role-play activity after a reading session , or replace a text or an activity with material down-loaded from the Internet or any other source. He may likewise wish to cut out an activity from the lesson etc.
Whatever the decisions made in terms of class management, it is important that the students can make sense of what the teacher wants to do, and understand the reasons why s/he is offering alternative activity
The above remarks have broadly defined the philosophy, the objectives and the approach (the competency-based approach) which were put into play to design this course book. We have also clarified the method and the organisation of the coursebook. All the activities presented here are designed to stimulate the students’ desire to learn more and to improve on knowledge and ability.
We have refrained from encouraging intense memorising, insisting instead on developing metacognitive abilities in learners. We have attempted, notably, to draw attention to the way language functions, how different words and structures can express the same ideas, how appropriacy and correctness are important for effective communication. We have found it adequate to relate the texts presented (from which activities and tasks are derived) to realistic contexts, whether in Algeria or in the rest of the world. This is one way to make students contribute with their own skills and their own fields of interest, to their linguistic development.
This is particularly true when it comes to the elaboration of their projects, whose topics will most likely arise from the students’ respective choices. There will then be an opportunity for them to check on their progress in terms of vocabulary and specialised language structures. Finally, their social skills, so necessary to fulfil particular roles in the future (or simply to behave as decent citizens ), will also be highlighted during the elaboration and the presentation of the project.
PREVIEW ( p.14)
Go through the preview with your students to let them know about what they will learn in terms of language and skills in this unit Brainstorm the project work which your students will carry out.. You can also prepare alternative projects that your students can do. It is not recommended to make the students work on the same project year after year. Here is a short list of other projects that can be assigned for your students in this unit: a family history project, memoirs of famous people, biographies, portraits, sketches , in short projects that fit in with the new language elements and skills that will be studied in the unit.
THINK IT OVER (p.15)
The aim of this rubric is to introduce the students to the topic of the file, which is life styles. Elicit your students’ responses to Mohammed Racim’s tableau/miniature using questions which contain the semi-modal used to. e.g., What does the tableau represent/show? It shows/represents life as it used to be like in Ramadan in the olden times? What can you see at the background? What did the women use to wear when they went outside then ? What about their menfolk? What did they use to put on on their heads ?
WORDS TO SAY (p.15)
The aim of this rubric is to revise the pronunciation of words related to the topic. The focus is on vowels and diphthongs. Make sure your students repeat the words. As they do so, try to diagnose possible problem sounds to which you will bring remedy in the SAY IT LOUD AND CLEAR rubric.
DISCOVERING LANGUAGE ( pp.16-21)
BEFORE YOU READ (p.16)
Interact with your students and have them identify/categorise the smaller pictures within the montage. Ask questions to elicit their responses. Which sector of economy do the small pictures with a green background represent?
What about the pictures with a yellow background ? ...
Personalise your questions gradually. In which sector of economy does your father work? Did he use to work in another sector ? ... At this stage, try not to check/correct your students’ responses. Lead them softly to contrast past and present
AS YOU READ(p.16)
Activity One (p.16)
The students will check their answers to some of the questions asked in the BEFORE YOU READ activity.
- The pictures with a green background represent /show the primary sector of economy. It’s a sector related to production.
-The picture with a red background shows the secondary sector of economy. It’s a sector related to transformation.
-The pictures with a yellow background represents the tertiary sector. It’s a sector related to services.
Act. Two (p.17)
Apart from being a reading comprehension activity, the aim of this activity is to introduce through the written medium the semi-modal used to in the interrogative and negative forms as well as the going to form for expressing future intentions.
a- Uncle Hassan used to work in the primary sector of economy.
b- Every morning he used to get up early to milk the cows before coming back to the kitchen for breakfast. ...
c- No, he didn’t ( use to).
d- This is an inference question. The sector of economy which attracts the greatest number of workers today is the tertiary sector . The inference can be made from §3.
e- Uncle Hassan is going to retire if his boss refuses to transfer him to a commercial service i.e., the tertiary sector of economy
Act. Three (p.17)
The aim of this activity is to revise the pronunciation of the “s” verb inflection . Refer your students to the last part of Grammar Reference on page. 188 for the pronunciation rules of the “s”ending.
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